My 1st Reaction Paper for my HSTARC2 class :) (Romanesque Architecture)

This gallery contains 6 photos.

I recognized that the first class reporter was not able to explain the topic properly to the class. Although the information is almost complete, there are still some moments wherein she was just reading the text on the screen and was … Continue reading

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Mies Van De Rohe. A German architect who is also one of the most influential architects in the world and is an icon. He became one of the architects who incorporated the concept of minimalism in his structures. His design focused on functionality and did not really put architectrual elements that are not necessary. He also gave importance to the maximizing of space and its flexibility. I really like the concept of minimalism if you follow this concept cost – cutting follows. I want to make a design that is both beautiful and affordable. I believe that the limits of our creativity is truly tested if we’re asked to design given limited amount of resources or space. Mies Van Der Rohe was able to master this architectural style and that’s why he’s one of my favorite architects.

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“The greatest American architect of all time.” One of my inspirations. He is Frank Lloyd Wright. The great Frank Lloyd Wright. His designs focused more on the application of mature organic style, which is best represented by the private residence the Falling Water, is one of his best works. The principle of mature organic style is the blending of the structure itself and nature. He uses trees, bushes, water and other forms of nature to create a new form of architecture that looks as if it grew from the ground. I really admire Frank Lloyd Wright’s works because I also am a nature lover just like him. Yeah it’s PLANTastic!

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I’m really grateful of what he has done for architecture especially his contributions. Being the ‘father of skyscrapers’, he has opened new possibilities for different building designs. Although he didn’t establish his own movement, his invention of the skyscrapers revolutionized the way buildings around the world are supposed to be designed.

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In my opinion, I really didn’t like the concept of International Style because this style followed a very strict set of rules causing it to be very rigid and thus limits creativity. I wouldn’t reject the opportunity of making a design influenced by this style however I will feel hesitant and uninspired because I don’t want my potential to become creative be limited and constrained by these strict set of rules that I have to follow.

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I have learned that Bauhaus is one of the most influential movements in Modern architecture and modernist design as a whole. Personally, I like my design to look modern so I really appreciated what I had learned in this topic. By learning the different principles of design, I’ll be able to apply what I learned in this topic to make my designs look modern. I would definitely love to have the opportunity to study in Bauhaus for my masters degree because it is one of the most popular and influential art institutions that many of the known professional architects and designers would recommend.

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Art Deco was focused more on linear symmetry unlike its predecessor Art Nouveau, which focused more on free flowing organic designs and asymmetry. But still, it was purely decorative. It also focused more on the usage of different geometrical shapes, namely trapezoids, rectangles, squares, etc. Personally, I find geometric shapes to be boring. However, the use of geometric shapes has become a primary design element in modernism, making designs very elegant and stylish. Although i don’t prefer to use a variety of geometric shapes in my design, this topic made me appreciate the aesthetics of these shapes through the principle of modernism which was somehow founded by the Art Deco movement.

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From what I understood from the principle of Beaux – arts, it is like a mini renaissance period reviving the traditional style of Gothic architecture and some design elements of roman and baroque styles. I learned that even the styles that phased out in the passage of time will soon be revived due to ever – changing pattern of interests of the people. This movement soon became one of the foundation of American architecture and it was even more closely associated to American architecture than in the architecture in Paris. In conclusion, Beaux Arts did not really have its own unique set of designs rather they made new renditions of old traditions from different architectural eras particularly Gothic architecture.

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I have learned that from the name itself, Arts and Crafts Movement influenced almost all forms of art, including architecture because the people during that time wanted their designs to look as natural as possible. This resulted into the incorporation of floral elements in their designs. I also learned that materials played a big role in the production of the designs that were made during the Arts and Crafts Movement. The beauty of the design during that time was dictated by the type of material that was used.  They were able to achieve a natural – looking design through the use of different materials and that was the focus of this movement.

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Manila Cathedral


Manila Cathedral

– “The Mother of all Churches and Cathedrals in the Philippines”

– Also called “The Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception”

– Located in Intramuros, Manila




– Filipino Architect and Civil Engineer.

– Born August 7, 1897 in San Fernando, Pampanga

– He was educated at the Ateneo De Manila A.B., in 1914; University of Santo Tomas, Civil Engineering, 1919; and University of Pennsylvania, Bachelor of Architecture, 1921.

– Fernando Ocampo (1897-1984), one of the founders of the UST School of Fine Arts and Architecture was established in 1930. He also co-founded in 1933 the Philippine Architects’ Society, now known as the Philippine Institute of Architects.




Evolution of Manila Cathedral from a Parish Church (1571) to the 7th Cathedral (1879-1945)

1st Cathedral: 1581-1588

–       made of nipa and bamboo

–       started by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi

–       elevated to a Cathedral in 1581 after Manila

–       became a diocese of Mexico in 1578

–       burned down in the 1583 fire

–       rebuilt with nipa and bamboo

–       destroyed by the June 15, 1588 hurricane

2nd Cathedral: 1591-1600

–       of stone and mortar

–       started by Bishop Domigo de Salazar

–       had a collateral structure of relics

–       damaged by the 1599 earthquake

–       almost completely destroyed by the Dec. 31, 1600 earthquake

–       Cathedral services transferred to the Chapel of Collegio de Sta. Potenciana

3rd Cathedral: 1641-1645

–       initiated by Archbishop Benavides

–       continued by Archbishop Mercado

–       damaged by the Aug, 1, 1621 earthquake

–       destroyed by the Nov. 30, 1645 earthquake, only the capilla mayor and wall remained

–       completely destroyed by the Dec. 5, 1645 earthquake

–       Cathedral services transferred to the Misericordia Church

4th Cathedral: 1681-1751

–       started by Archbishop Poblete in 1654

–       partially completed in 1662

–       completed in 1681

–       damaged by typhoons and earthquakes

–       repaired in 1706 by Archbishop Camacho

–       repairs continued in 1736 by Archbishop Rodriguez who obtained 13 large bells

–       dilapidated in 1747

–       demolished in 1751

5th Cathedral: 1760-1852

–       started in 1751 by Archbishop Pedro de la Santisima Trinidad

–       inaugurated on Dec. 8, 1760

–       designed by Fray Juan de Uguccioni

–       repaired and renovated in 1850 by Ojeda

–       destroyed by the Sept. 16, 1852 earthquake

–       leaving only the face standing


6th cathedral: 1858-1870

–       started in 1854

–       completed in Mar. 31, 1858

–       designed by Nicolas Valdes

–       restored for defects in 1862 until 1863

–       destroyed by the Jan. 3, 1863 earthquake

–       services transferred to the Chapel of the Venerable 3rd Order of San Fransisco

7th Cathedral: 1879-1945

–       designed by Vicente Serrano

–       blessed by Archbishop Pedro Payo

–       damaged by the 1880 earthquake which crumbled the bell tower to the ground housed wounded American soldiers during the Filipino-American War (1898-1902)

–       fully destroyed in 1945 during the battle of Liberation in WW II

8th Cathedral: 1958 – Present

–       reconstruction started in May 1956 and completed in December 1958.

–       Initiated by Rufino Cardinal Santos

–       Designed by Fernando Ocampo

–       Stained glass windows by Galo Ocampo

–       Received donations from Japan, Spain, and the United States, among others

–       Estimated cost of construction was 3,700,000.



Manila Cathedral is a Roman Catholic Minor Basilica in the capital of the Philippines, Manila. The cathedral of the Archdiocese of Manila is the seat of the Archbishop of Manila, similar to that of St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City. It is dedicated to Saint Mary under the title “Immaculate Conception”, in her role as patroness of the Philippines. It was also used for wakes of religious people like Corazon C. Aquino, and Jaime Cardinal Sin.



V.            DESIGN

“The church is a Romanesque-Byzantine architecture that features baroque elements, a fusion of contrasting styles. The facade is composed of two-storey blocks with three entrances of recessed arches. The doors are made of bronze sculpted by Alessandro Monteleone and Francisco Nagni. Attached is the bell tower at the right side of the building. “

“The main façade of the Manila Cathedral is graced by statues of famous saints sculpted in Roman travertine stone.”





VI.           ANALYSIS

The building really captured my attention as I saw it. I was really surprised to see how gigantic and magnificent it is. The first time I saw it, what suddenly came in my mind is the Romanesque Architecture. The building’s façade is very grand. And as I entered the building, I could just stare at every corner I look up to and appreciate its beauty.


VII.         DETAILS

The Manila Cathedral was completed in the year 1958 after having been reconstructed so many times because of earthquakes. It is located in Intramuros, Manila. The Cathedral is inspired by Romanesque Architecture. As seen in the images, the windows are rounded arches and the walls are usually flat. There is a dome atop and rounded arches can bee seen from the face into the building.



–       The cross atop the central dome is a reference point of astronomical longitudes of the archipelago.

–       The Cathedral hosted two funerals for the two formers Presidents of the Philippines: Carlos P. Garcia and Corazon C. Aquino



Rear perspective of the Manila Cathedral

church dome

Church facade

Church facade

Facade ornaments

Plan of Manila Cathedral

Mosaic window

Ribbed Vault

Ribbed Vault

Cathedral columns



Vaulted ceiling

The Altar

The Altar

Pipe Organs

Mosaic windows

Mosaic window

Carvings on doors

Carvings on church doors

The Bell Tower

Rounded Arch

Rounded Arch


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I have learned that Industrial Revolution was a period of major changes in agriculture, production and most especially technology. It is when the old and traditional ways of doing things were slowly phased out. This period was a very significant period in the way people live their life right now because this period served as the turning point from being old-classed to revolutionary and receptive of change, eccentricity and unconventionality.  The name itself, industrial revolution, already gives the meaning and a pre-emption that the period was where advancements and innovations were so omnipresent. The period, Industrial revolution, was about the gradual yet vast breakthroughs and improvements in the use of machines and other technology-related devices which started from Great Britain and then continued to influence other parts of Europe, America and then eventually the whole world.

In agriculture, an increase in the food supply and in the production of raw materials occurred through improved agricultural practices and techniques. In technology, on the other hand, a breakthrough of new ones were established.


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